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Tichawona Chikuvira

Energy Technology Institute SIRDC,


Executive Summary

Energy is an essential prerequisite for economic growth and prosperity. The Zimbabwe energy situation is characterized by a persistent imbalance between supply and demand. Energy expansion projects are capital intensive, placing big demands on scarce foreign currency reserves. Further more, energy exploitation and utilization has detrimental effects on the global environment.

In order to meet the challenges of the growing energy demand without harming the environment, Demand Side Management (DSM) and energy conservation and energy efficiency in particular, have to be incorporated into energy planning. DSM can be equated to the generation of alternative clean energy such as solar, wind, etc.

In the context of Zimbabwe and other developing countries, it has become evident that opportunities for energy conservation and energy efficiency can indeed reduce energy consumption (and hence GHGs), improve productivity and substantially improve exports and foreign earnings. Moreover, energy conservation/energy efficiency is the fastest and cheapest option to slow down carbon emissions that are largely responsible for the global warming phenomenon.

The importance of DSM is well recognized, both for energy management and for the environmental benefits especially global warming. However, there are barriers to the implementation of DSM, particularly energy efficiency and energy conservation measures. In recent years, the UNFCCC has undertaken to protect the global environment by promoting actions that reduce or limit the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere to a level that will not interfere with the climate system. There are clear opportunities for implementing energy conservation and energy efficiency measures through the GEF, which can facilitate and fund climate change activities on an incremental basis.

Zisco, the Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company is the only integrated producer of steel products in East and Southern Africa. It is owned 89 % by the government of Zimbabwe. Recently, the company has been going through a major rehabilitation programme to make it attractive for investors. Privation of Ziscosteel is set for 2000 and plans are already at an advanced stage. The government will reduce its stake to 30 %.

Ziscosteel is a major user of energy, both electricity and coal. This report has been compiled to gather information on energy utilization and possible Demand Side Management (DSM) options at Ziscosteel. Several clear opportunities for DSM including power factor correction, energy efficient lighting, variable speed drive applications, co-generation and optimization of energy distribution and utilization have been identified. One major obstacle is the lack of instrumentation for measuring and monitoring the necessary parameters required for good energy management practices.

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