AFREPREN/FWD - Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa Website

Home l Site Map l Contact Us l

Working Paper 359



Home

About Us

Focal Areas

Projects

Publications

Members

Energy News

Energy Events

Opportunities

Related Links

Picture Gallery

Contact Us

No. of Website Visitors:

Landfill Bioenergy – Opportunities and Barriers

by

Stephen Karekezi, Waeni Kithyoma and Oscar Onguru


Table of Contents

1.0 BACKGROUND
                         

3

1.1 Introduction                                             

3

1.2 Structure of the report                                     

4

2.0 ENERGY FROM URBAN WASTE IN AFRICA – A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES

 5

2.1 Urban waste

5

2.2 Technologies for Generating Energy from Waste

5

2.2.1 Anaerobic Digestion

6

2.2.2 Incineration

6

2.2.3 Landfilling

6

2.3 Comparison of Technologies

7

2.3.1 Waste Composition

8

2.3.2 Amount of Waste Needed

8

2.3.3 Area Required

9

2.3.4 Cost of the Plant

9

3.0 LANDFILL TECHNOLOGY – POTENTIAL AND STATUS

11

3.1 Fundamentals - How the technology works             

11

3.2 Potential for Energy generation from Landfills            

12

3.2.1 Global              

12

3.2.2 Africa                         

13

3.3 STATUS OF ENERGY GENERATION FROM LANDFILLS

14

3.3.1 Global              

14

3.3.2 Africa                         

16

4.0 KEY DRIVERS AND BARRIERS


21


5.0 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR LANDFILL ENERGY



23

6.0 FINANCING ISSUES FOR LANDFILL


25

7.0 TECHNICAL CAPACITY ISSUES FOR LANDFILL


26

8.0 RECOMMENDATION


27

9.0 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


28

10.0 APPENDICES


28

GLOSSARY OF TERMS


35

List of tables


 

Table 1: Summary of urban solid waste energy recovery technologies

 

Table 2: Empirical ranking of incineration, anaerobic digestion and land-filling

 

Table 3: Estimates of LFG generation and electricity generation in Africa

 

Table 4: Registered LFG projects with emission reductions performance reports & comparison of reported forecast emission reductions by year of project registration.

 

Table 5: Output from the digestion of waste in Dar es Salaam Table

 

Table 6: Cost estimates for the “TAKAGAS” Project

 

Table 7: TAKAGAS Project economics after commissioning

 

Table 8: Investment Costs for Methane Gas Capture and Use in Conakry and Dakar

 

Table 9: Typical Actors in Urban Waste Sub-Sector

 


List of Figures

Figure 1 : Modern Landfill Site

Figure 2: Waste-to-energy facilities world wide

 

List of Boxes

Box 1: Summarized landfill gas capture CDM projects in Asia.

 

Box 2: South African Minimum Requirements for Land filling of Waste

 

Box 3: Bio-remediation Landfills in Brazil

 

Return to top

This paper is available on an exchange basis. If you find it to be useful, we encourage you to send us any relevant publications from your organization. To request for the full paper, please fill in the publications request form

View the listing of Other Working Papers

 

 

wordpress visitor counter