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Policy and Regulatory Review Eastern and Central Africa Region


Stephen Karekezi, Waeni Kithyoma and Kennedy Muzee


The purpose of this assignment was to summarize key information on the energy sector (policy and regulation) in fifteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa[1], which are: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Mauritius, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Cameroon, Nigeria and Ghana. The information will assist REEEP in the identification of key energy policy, regulation and market opportunities and barriers in the region.

The report is structured in the following fashion:

Part 1: Regional overview

This section provides an overview of the energy sector and includes information on key energy sector characteristics, significant energy flows between the countries and/or states, existence of electricity and gas networks and power pools interconnections and regional regulatory association(s).

Part 2: Individual Country Summaries

This section provides summarized data for the specific countries under the following sub-headings:

Energy provision: The energy provision includes data on: main fuel sources for direct use and power generation, degree of reliance on imported energy; extent of connection to electricity network (households and businesses; rural and urban); capacity concerns (power generation and/or transmission/distribution) and the potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency and co-generation (i.e. any authoritative assessments).

Energy market: This section summarizes information on power utilities in the various countries, in terms of ownership i.e. whether state/municipality/private/mixture-owned. Related to ownership, the extent of competition in power generation and energy retail is highlighted. Lastly, the section looks at the general structure of the utilities - extent of vertical integration of generation/ transmission/ distribution/ retail.

Energy policy framework: This section attempts to answer some critical questions like existence or not, of an explicit energy policy framework (e.g. a recent White Paper) and key policies (e.g. privatization, liberalization, rural electrification plan etc); what role is envisaged for sustainable energy; any current energy policy debates/developing legislation - e.g. on security of supply; energy market reform; incentives for renewable energy etc; any specific policies or programmes to promote sustainable energy; any major energy network or sustainable energy studies available; the role of government in energy policy and which departments are involved; any government (or government funded) agencies with a specific role in sustainable energy and/or environmental protection (with an energy role) and any energy planning procedure in place.

Energy regulation: This section provides more details on the energy regulation in the countries. It answers questions on existence of an energy or utility regulator, date it was established, the regulatory framework and its roles in the sector regulation. In addition the section looks into some of the regulatory barriers that the regulator is experiencing.

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