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Clean Energy And Water: An Assessment For Services For Adaptation To Climate Change,




The main aim of this study is to assess renewable energy use in water services in East Africa and its implication for adaptation to climate change impacts. The study reviews the challenges facing the wider use of renewable energy technologies in water services as an option for addressing the adverse impact of climate change on water services in Eastern Africa. This regional study is one of the four assessment reports under the exploratory project of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

The report is sub-divided into seven chapters. The first chapter provides an overview on the study, objectives and the rationale and motivation for the study. The report focuses on the following countries: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda and Burundi as all these Eastern African countries have relatively comparable socio-political and climatic features. Furthermore, they face similar energy, climate change and policy challenges.

Chapter two briefly discusses key methodologies used by the research team. During the study, the research team relied on the available literature, official documentation and past/ongoing studies on water, energy services, environment and climate change. This included available data and statistics from national databases, surveys, research studies and reports published by key stakeholders such as ministries of environment, energy, finance and water.

The third chapter provides a brief background review of the energy sector and water services in Eastern Africa and highlights evidence of climate change impacts. The study notes that the energy sector in the region is characterized by an over-reliance on traditional biomass energy resources which accounts for over 70% in all countries. A similar situation is experienced in the water sector which is also characterized by low levels of access to improved water resources. Eastern Africa has recently experienced extreme weather events that provide growing evidence of the adverse impacts of climate change.

Chapter four provides a short review of key renewables (namely, treadle, ram, solar PV and wind pumps) that can play a major role in water services delivery. The study confirmed that the dissemination of treadle pumps is higher compared to other water pumping renewable energy technologies. This is partly attributed to the low cost of treadle pumps.

Chapter five presents case examples of renewable energy application in water services with a special emphasis on two key renewable energy options, namely: treadle and wind pumps. Farmers who adopted treadle pumps early, have recorded impressive benefits such as doubling of agricultural yields. These attractive benefits encourage other farmers to buy treadle pumps. The case studies show that, by using animate energy-driven treadle pumps instead of bucket irrigation, farmers can increase irrigated land, reduce work time, improve crop quality among other benefits.

Chapter six presents a recap overview assessment of decentralized renewable energy technologies (RETs) for water services in Eastern Africa and discusses how the two selected renewables (wind pumps and treadle pumps) can play an important role in enhancing the resilience of water and water-related issues to adverse impacts of climate change. It then reviews regional and national climate change adaptation strategies and examines the key factors driving use of renewables in the region.

The seventh and final chapter summarizes the findings of the study, recommends areas of further research studies, and proposes practical entry points for further investment and research support by the IDRC Program on climate change and water (CCW) A clear and practical entry point for further investment and research support by the CCW program is the substantial amount of studies and research undertaken by AFREPREN/FWD and its members in region on the subject of renewables for water services in East Africa.

This paper is available on an exchange basis. If you find it to be useful, we encourage you to send us any relevant publications from your organization. To request for the full paper, please fill in the publications request form

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