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Sustainable Energy in Africa: Cogeneration and Geothermal in the East and Horn of Africa - Status and prospects
Edited by Stephen Karekezi and Waeni Kithyoma


Renewable energy technologies can play a major role in providing clean and improved energy services to the bulk of the population in Africa. In spite of the benefits that renewables can offer to countries in the region, the level of dissemination is still low. 

At the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg in 2002, a target of 10% was proposed for the supply of energy from renewables. Due to the limited access to data and information, most African governments were unable to assess the viability of this target.

AFREPREN/FWD, with support from HBF, initiated a study to examine the viability of the 10% renewable energy to examine the viability of the 10% renewable energy target proposed at the 2002 WSSD Summit.

This volume examines the extent to which two technologies: biomass-based cogeneration and geothermal can meet the 10% renewable electricity supply target in the East and Horn of Africa. It contains a regional overview of renewables in East Africa and Horn of Africa countries, namely Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. The findings presented in this volume confirm that renewables can provide 10% of electricity generation in East and Horn of Africa based on only two technologies. In addition, the volume highlights a wide range of the socio-economic benefits that would result from the increased use of renewables in the region.

Click here to view a listing of the Table of Contents in the book

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The Regulation of the Power Sector in Africa: Attracting Investment and Protecting the Poor.
Edited by Edward Marandu and Dorcas Kayo

Attracting private investment and delivery of services to the poor majority are two of the major goals for reforming and regulating the power sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. This book believes the important determinants of new investment in the electricity industry are the licensing process and the tariff regime.  

If the licensing process is to attract private investors, the procedures must be clear and must function efficiently and transparently, and the tariff regime reflect actual costs. The rationale for attracting private investment is straightforward - the inadequacy of existing power systems in the region to meet demand. In many countries, frequent power cuts linked to inadequate electricity generation capacity are the norm rather than the exception. 

The rationale for considering the plight of the poor is based on both ethical and sustainability considerations. In ethical terms, access to energy is a fundamental human right in the context of social justice. In sustainability terms, a reformed private investor dominated power sector that does not recognize the plight of the poor may represent sound economics, yet prove to be socially and politically unsustainable. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the recommended regulatory reforms are sensitive to the needs of the poor majority.

This volume examines the extent to which the twin goals of attracting investment and providing energy to the poor are addressed by the existing legal and regulatory framework. By studying six countries in the eastern and southern African region, some helpful lessons worth sharing with other African countries are shared.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

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Energy Services for the Urban Poor in Africa: Issues and Policy Implications
Edited by Bereket Kebede and Ikhupuleng Dube

Studies of energy services for Africa's urban areas, and for the urban poor in particular, are still rare. The synoptic overview, supplemented by five detailed country case studies, contained in this volume are the result of path-breaking and innovative research on the African energy sector. 

Africa has experienced higher rates of urbanization than any other continent over the past generation, and today about one-third of the continent's population live in urban areas. But the supply of electricity to poor city dwellers has not kept pace: in 1970 some 40 million were without access to electricity; by the year 2000 this figure stood at over 100 million. The urban poor continue to rely on wood fuel, charcoal, kerosene and dung cakes for their energy needs, with all the environmental drawbacks that these sources involve. The only tangible policy response by most African governments has been to provide blanket energy subsidies in the form of kerosene and/or lifeline electricity tariff subsidies. 

To address the challenges of meeting the energy needs of Africa’s urban poor, the studies in this volume examine five main energy-related issues relevant to urban welfare, public finances and the economy:

- To what extent urban poor households can afford modern energy sources without subsidies;

- The role of upfront fixed energy costs in affecting the affordability of modern energy by the urban poor;

- How well targeted energy subsidies are to the urban poor;

- The impact of these subsidies on public finances;

- How electricity tariffs affect the operations of small and medium enterprises, which are the main source of livelihood for the majority of the urban poor who are not part of the formal sector of the economy.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from

ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

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Renewables and Energy for Rural Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Edited by Maxwell Mapako and Abel Mbewe


Energy supply is a key factor in economic and social development, but too little attention has been given to the needs of rural households, farmers and small businesses. Rural households in sub-Saharan Africa still derive most of their energy from biomass sources. Lack of modern energy supplies in rural areas constrains efforts to alleviate poverty and improve living standards. Renewables and Energy for Rural Development in sub-Saharan Africa addresses this situation. 

The original research contained in this volume identifies the options for the provision of modern and improved energy services based on renewables to low-income rural areas, with special emphasis on the productive uses of energy. In the five countries represented – Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Zambia and Zimbabwe – the volume focuses on whether a decentralized approach to energy delivery is better than more centralized provision, the role of income-generating activities in attracting modern energy services to rural areas, and the barriers as well as opportunities that exist in the promotion of renewable energy technologies in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. 

The volume presents a set of policy options that, if implemented, would result in the increased dissemination and use of renewables and improved energy services in rural sub-Saharan Africa.   

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

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Capacity Building for a Reforming African Power Sector

Edited by Mengistu Teferra and Stephen Karekezi


Capacity building for the power sector is an important national responsibility, which Governments in Africa need to seriously address. The inability of Governments to mobilize the required level of investment and commitment to the development and retention of a wide array of skills needed by the power sector is, in part, responsible for many of the difficulties that are faced by the region's electricity industry.

Under the aegis of the AFREPREN/FWD Capacity Building Theme Group, a regional study and four country studies (Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Ethiopia and South Africa) addressed the capacity building question in the African power sector. This volume presents the findings of the studies. 

The studies analyse issues of manpower training and retention in  national power utilities. They also highlight the challenges and implications of capacity building initiatives in a reforming electricity industry and propose innovative options for capacity building in the region's power sector

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com) (To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Reforming the Power Sector in Africa.

Edited by M R Bhagavan, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1999)


Africa, as the contributors to this volume show, is in the process - like much of the rest of the world - of moving away from the stage historically where it was assumed that state ownership and a public sector monopoly were indispensable for developing the power sector. Today, the public sector is perceived as having led to inefficiency, waste, indifference and corruption in the provision of public services generally, including power. Sub-Saharan Africa is now experiencing the process of restructuring and reform, including privatization, of the power sector which began in some of the leading industrialised countries a decade or more ago. The contributors to this volume, who are themselves involved in the policy process in their own countries, examine how far this movement towards restructuring and reform has proceeded in Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

Based on empirical research, the authors have generated policy options and scenarios that are bound to be of vital interest to policy makers and implementers throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Among the key topics dealt with are: the determinants of performance and efficiency; vertical and horizontal unbundling of power generation, distribution and sales the role of the independent power producers; the benefits and risks attendant on reform and privatization; and the legal and regulatory framework on which everything else depends.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com) (To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Petroleum Marketing in Africa. Issues in Pricing, Taxation and Investment.
Edited by M. R. Bhagavan. ZED Books Ltd., London UK (1999)


The Nineties have seen a fundamental shift in the policy and practice governing the pricing and marketing of petroleum products in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Strict government control has been, and is being, replaced by liberalisation. Oil multinationals have been ceded a large degree of freedom to pursue their own strategies in the import and retailing of petroleum products. This has profound consequences on a wide front: in access and affordability, for both urban and rural users; in subsidies to ease the price burden on low income groups; in taxation by, and revenues for, the state; in the opportunity for price fixing and oligopoly by multinationals; and most importantly, in generating investment for expanding the retail network beyond the retail the metropolitan areas.

In this volume, these issues are examined in depth in the context of the two polar opposites: Kenya, where full liberalisation has been achieved, and Ethiopia, where the transition from state control to liberalisation has just begun. A comparative analysis of these two cases yields valuable insights into policies and strategies that African countries need to deploy for ensuring last benefits from the imperative of liberalisation.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from

ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com) (To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Planning & Management in the African Power Sector.

Lucy Khalema-Redeby, Hailu Mariam, Abel Mbewe and Ben Ramasedi, with an introduction by V. Ranganathan, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1998).


The generation of electricity, while by no means the only energy sector to be taken into account in African countries, is crucial to the modern economy generally and to the future growth of manufacturing in particular. It is for this reason that AFREPREN/FWD commissioned research on electricity in Ethiopia, Zambia, Botswana and Lesotho whose findings are documented in this volume.

The volume explores the problems of the power sector in Africa, including its inability to meet the electricity needs of a large proportion of Africa's population. Under each country case study, the publication provides background information; the status and performance of the power sector; and, future plans and prospects. Effective utility management in financial and technical terms is examined and strategies suggested for the rehabilitation of the power sector. In conclusion, the volume highlights the current status and performance of the power sector and outlines the regulatory and structural changes taking place.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com(http://www.amazon.com (To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Biomass Energy Policy in Africa: Selected Case Studies
Edited by D.L. Kgathi, D.O. Hall, A. Hategeka and M.B.M. Sekhwela, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1997).


The majority of the population in Africa depend on biomass as a source of energy. Woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood), being the most important source of biomass energy, is a subject of major concern in developing countries mainly because of its increasing scarcity, and more recently, because of its importance to the debate on climate change. *This book discusses the biomass energy problematic and policy options for addressing it in both Botswana and Rwanda.

Two case studies on Botswana address the nature, extent and policy implications of the fuelwood problem and the extent to which it contributes to deforestation. The Rwanda case studies examine the seasonal and spatial variation of the consumption of biomass energy and the evolution of the energy policy process. A number of policy measures deemed appropriate and feasible in the wider African context, are provided.

The book, thus, makes a valuable contribution to the scarce literature on energy and environment in Africa. The multidisciplinarity of the book makes it an important reference material for policy makers and researchers in Africa as well as other developing countries.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Renewable Energy Technologies in Africa. S. Karekezi and Timothy Ranja, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1997).


The energy sector is widely acclaimed as the heart and lungs of any programme for economic development. At the same time, energy at household level and in the rural areas is essential for everyday life. Renewable energy technologies can play a major role in both respects. This book sums up across the whole of Eastern (including the Horn) and Southern Africa (including South Africa itself) what is now known about the innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies in the region.

Successive chapters deal with bio-energy, solar and wind energy and small hydro technologies. The authors examine the African energy sector's overall geo-political and socio-economic setting as well as specific non-technological factors that impinge on renewable energy development, namely: financing, institutional structures for energy management, human resource development, equity and access, and environmental considerations. The book, which concludes with a special section on policy recommendation, provides an essential text for training a new generation of African energy specialists.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from

ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Transport Energy in Africa. Edited and introduced by M.R. Bhagavan, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1996)


Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced substantial growth in motorized transport. Transportation energy is almost exclusively petroleum-based and in many instances, import costs account for a significant proportion of export earnings. As its demand rises, certain problems need to be tackled urgently if this growth is not to place unbearable strains on African economies and urban environments. Chief among these problems are fuel-use inefficiencies of the present vehicle fleet, spiralling costs associated with mounting fuel wastage, the absence of systematic transport management and rising levels of urban air pollution.

In this regard, two research studies were conducted in Mauritius and Ethiopia by Prof. J. Baguant and Mr. M. Teferra respectively. The findings have been published as the seventh volume in the AFREPREN/FWD published volumes. This volume presents the contrasting transport energy scenarios in the two countries (which exemplify the region's wide range of transportation challenges and policy interventions) and extracts from the research findings, policy measures that are appropriate and feasible in the wider African context.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Energy Utilities and Institutions in Africa. Edited and introduced by M R Bhagavan, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1996)


In Africa, modern forms of energy, notably electricity and petroleum products are available to a small minority. An increase in the supply of these resources will not by itself meet the sharply rising demand. Of utmost importance is the actual delivery of modern energy services to the different types of consumers. The role of energy institutions is critical to the realisation of this goal.

Recognizing this, AFREPREN/FWD conducted an energy institutions research study in Kenya and the Sudan. The study examines the wide range of institutional challenges in the energy sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Covered in this volume, are issues of structure and decision making process within energy utilities; their financial and technical performance; their ability to formulate and implement policies and strategies in fulfillment of their responsibilities; and, their technical and managerial competence.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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Biomass Energy and Coal in Africa. Edited by D.O. Hall and Y.S. Mao, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1994)


Bio-energy, notably woodfuel and charcoal, accounts for the overwhelming bulk of energy consumption in Africa. In no other continent is the dependence on bio-energy so dominant. The role of biomass as a sink for CO2, a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming, is another reason for the increased interest in biomass.

This book is a timely and useful study of bio-energy issues in sub-Saharan Africa. It brings together reviews of bio-energy and alternative fuels in three countries - Botswana, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. The first two provide contrasting examples of the status of bio-energy in semi-arid and tropical regions, respectively. They present convincing evidence that previous bio-energy assessments were often inaccurate and of limited use to policy makers. They highlight the need for more accurate and cost-effective methodologies for determining a country's bio-energy resource base and the extent to which it is being diminished.

Further case studies examine the potential for switching to different fuels in rural households in Zimbabwe and Botswana. But, while both countries have used coal extensively in power generation, concomitant environmental concerns have not yet been addressed and the introduction of coal to rural homes as a replacement for woodfuel has proved much more difficult. The two case studies argue, however, that the case for coal in the rural areas would be strengthened if the cost of ongoing deforestation was taken fully into account.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

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Energy Options for Africa: Environmentally Sustainable Alternatives. Edited by S. Karekezi and Gordon Mackenzie, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1993)


As African economies seek to recover from what is commonly now described as the ‘lost’ decade of the 1980s, energy policy has become a crucial component in the region’s industrial, transport and environment strategies, and in meeting household fuel needs.

This volume is a guide to policy makers and development agencies for determining environmentally sound energy options and priorities for the region. The contributors - leading energy and environment specialists from Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Uganda - identify the key requisites for such development: innovative policy instruments and institutions, and incorporation of environmental costing; mobilization of both local and external financial resources; management training and technology acquisition; energy efficiency; increased supply of environmentally benign modern fuels and energy technologies.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

 

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Energy Management in Africa. Edited by M.R. Bhagavan and S. Karekezi, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1992)


Growing supplies and efficient use of modern energy in the form of electricity, petroleum and coal are indispensable to the development of sub-Saharan Africa, especially in view of the possibility that majority of the next generation of Africans may be living in urban areas. Economic and environmental concerns dictate that the growth in the supply of modern forms of energy be matched by drastic reductions in the gross inefficiencies that characterize the energy systems in operation now. Energy management has therefore emerged as a key strategy. Among the biggest challenges facing energy management in sub-Saharan Africa are the efficient uses of fossil fuels in the transport industry and electricity generation sectors.

The contributors address these challenges. Two of the contributions deal with petroleum in the transport sectors of Lesotho and Ethiopia; while the Kenyan contributors tackle the question of energy saving in manufacturing industry; Lastly, alternative scenarios for electricity generation in Mauritius are examined.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

 

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Rural Electrification in Africa. Edited by V. Ranganathan, ZED Books Ltd., London, UK (1992)


Electricity is indispensable to modernity and development. Since rural inhabitants account for the bulk of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, rural electrification is a central element in the continent's energy development agenda. Rural Electrification in Africa constitutes this volume in the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN/FWD)'s ongoing series of policy-relevant, scholarly investigations of various critically important dimensions of Africa's energy needs. Edited by an eminent electricity specialist at the Indian Institute of Management, this book provides a panoramic assessment of the extent to which countries in the region have succeeded in bringing electricity to rural communities. It brings together the findings of a research programme carried out under AFREPREN's auspices using case studies from Botswana.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from  ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

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Environmentally-Sound Energy Options for Africa. Final Statement of the African Energy Experts Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, by S. Karekezi and D. Ogunlade, AFREPREN/FWD, Nairobi (1992)

This is the final statement of the African Energy Experts Meeting organized in May, 1992 in Nairobi, Kenya by the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN/FWD); the Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination (FWD); the Energy Unit of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); and the UNEP Collaboration Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) located at the Riso National Laboratory, Denmark.

Largely based on the issues raised by an earlier document entitled: "A New Environmentally-Sound Energy Strategy for the Development of Sub-Saharan Africa" co-authored by O. Davidson and S. Karekezi, the document is designed to assist African policy makers and concerned development agencies in identifying the priority and environmentally-sound energy options for the region. It is hoped that this document will provide a guide for action in the post-UNCED phase. Thisdocument provides a succinct summary of views and opinions of a wide range of leading African energy specialists.

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Energy for Rural Development. Edited and introduced by M.R. Bhagavan and S. Karekezi, ZED Books Ltd., London UK (1992)


This book contains essays presented at a United Nations Meeting of Experts on the Role of New and Rural Development . With an introductory essay by the Swedish-based energy policy analyst Dr. M.R. Bhagavan and the Kenya Based Facilitator of the African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN/FWD) Stephen Karekezi, the volume comprises national and regional studies examining the technological, economic, political, social issues concerned with energy for rural development , raising questions on productivity, income, institutions, local participation, information and assessment of resources and technologies. The studies relate to the rural situations in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, North Africa and the Middle East, South and East Asia, Central America and the Caribbean Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Each study is written either by local energy specialists and academics, or by experts associated with the United Nations and its Agencies.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

 

 

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AFREPREN/FWD: African Energy Policies - Issues in Planning and Practice. Introduced by M.R. Bhagavan D.R. Brooks, Haile Lul Tebicke and S. Karekezi, ZED Books Ltd., London UK (1990)


With public concern growing at the environmental impact of global energy programmes, this study of Africa’s energy needs and policies is timely. Produced by the African energy policy research network (AFREPREN/FWD), a grouping of 24 eastern and southern African countries, it contains papers by energy specialists and government policy makers on six broad areas of particular relevance to Africa: oil and natural gas, coal and gasification; renewable energy and technology; bio-energy; electricity; and planning. Country practices focused upon are Botswana, Burundi, Kenya, Lesotho, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.  

The first in a planned series of studies funded by the Swedish and Canadian governments, this volume is introduced with a comprehensive essay jointly authored by Dr. M.R. Bhagavan, political economist and Swedish based researcher, Dr. David Brooks, former head of Canadian funded environmental and natural resources research programme based in Kenya, Haile Lul Tebicke, regional economic adviser to the economic commission for Africa, and Mr. S. Karekezi of the Institute for Woodfuel Studies in Nairobi.

All publications are distributed on an exchange basis or can be ordered from ZED Books (http://www.zedbooks.co.uk) or Amazon.com (http://www.amazon.com)

(To request for PDF or full versions of the book. please fill in the publication request form)

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