AFREPREN/FWD - Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa Website
Cape Verde, the small island archipelago nation off Africa's northwest coast, has set itself a very bold renewable energy target. As part of its "sustainable energy for all" agenda, it has pledged to obtain 100% of its electricity from renewable resources by 2025. Cape Verde is made up of 10 islands, nine of which are inhabited, that lie about 600km west of Senegal. Almost all of the islands' 550,000 residents have access to electricity, but about one-third still rely on firewood and charcoal for cooking. Cape Verde's per capita electricity consumption of 727 kWh per person per year is substantially higher than the sub-Saharan Africa average of 488 kWh per person per year. But electricity prices are high. They range from US$0.26 - 0.32 in recent years compared, for example, to an average of US$0.13 for residential homes in the US. Although most of its electricity is produced by generators, which run on imported petroleum products, Cape Verde has started to diversify its energy portfolio. A quarter is now provided by renewable sources. This is good news because there are estimates that, between 2015 and 2020, Cape Verde will almost double its annual electricity consumption to 670 GWh, up from 360 GWh.With cutting-edge technologies and innovative business practices, Cape Verde can achieve its 100% renewable energy goal in a way that is cost-effective and equitable. One research team suggested that a system based on solar, wind and energy storage (as batteries and pumped hydropower) could meet Cape Verde's goals. It certainly has a wide range of options for increasing its share of renewable energy to achieve this. Some countries obtain almost all of their electricity from renewable sources, but these have substantial hydroelectric resources. Cape Verde, lacking large hydropower resources, would be unique in achieving 100% renewable energy with a diverse resource mix.
Energy Minister Boakye Agyarko has confirmed that the West African Gas Pipeline's Reverse Gas Flow Project should be ready by Q2 2018, for the transportation of gas from Aboadze to Tema for power generation. GhanaWeb reported that at present, gas from oilfields on the West coast only terminates at the Aboadze thermal enclave in the Western Region. However, Agyarko affirmed that the project is progressing steadily and is on course to be completed before the first gas from the Sankofa-Gye Nyame field come on-stream by the end of Q2 next year. While addressing members of parliament, the Minister touched on some of the major project updates including the conclusion and signing off of the Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) between the Ghana National Gas Company (GNPC) and West African Pipeline Company (WAPCo). He said all other agreements are at the final stages and signing off. They include: Construction Management Agreement (CMA) between Eni Ghana and WAPCo; CMA between Eni Ghana and GNGC; Tie-In and Interconnection Agreement between WAPCo and GNGC; and the Tie-In and Interconnection Agreement between Eni Ghana and GNGC. “All these agreements are being negotiated concurrently, since they are independent of each other. The most critical activities [signing of the GTA Term Sheet] and the award of the EPC contract have been undertaken and the project is on schedule to meet its completion date,” he said.
The Namibian regional electricity distributor, Erongo Red, has commissioned a state-of-the-art substation at Walvis Bay to keep up with the high electricity demand. Speaking at the inauguration on Friday, Erongo Red CEO Fessor Mbango said that the upgrade has by far been the company's biggest project to date. According to the New Era, at present Walvis Bay's electricity consumption is about 60MW and has put added strain on the network. However, the system upgrade will meet the town's growing demand with the station's 120MW transfer capacity at 11 kilovolt. "Our position has always been to reinvest in our network and to ensure that we provide exceptional services to our customers. Our vision is to bring electricity to all by 2020 and upgrading our network is very crucial in our drive to fulfil this vision. "Hence, this upgrade will enable us to address critical problems by improving reliability, enabling critical upgrades to be undertaken, reducing network constraints and minimising unplanned interruptions," Mbango said. The N$570 million ($40 million) project was a joint venture between Erongo Red and Nampower. The electricity distributor contributed N$270 million ($19 million) through a loan obtained from the Development Bank of Namibia. Also speaking at the event, permanent secretary in the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Simeon Negumbo, said electricity is a vehicle for economic emancipation and commended Erongo Red and stakeholders for partnering to develop critical infrastructure for the benefit of Walvis Bay. The minister said: "As you are aware, Walvis Bay is of strategic importance to the whole country, thus it is very important that we have the infrastructure to cater for all the current and envisaged projects.
The Longyuan Mulilo De Aar Wind Power Project has been successfully commissioned, connecting an estimated 85,000 local residents to clean the power. Situated in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, the plant has a generating capacity of 100MW per annum. The announcement was made on the weekend by local government officials.The large-scale wind farm was developed by Chinese firm, China Longyuan Power Group Corporation, in partnership with Mulilo Renewable Energy. The Chinese firm won the contract in 2015 to develop two wind farms – 100MW De Aar Phase I wind system and the 144MW De Aar Phase II North district facility – under the third round of South Africa’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP). Debt financing was provided by Nedbank Limited acting through its Nedbank Capital Division, and the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Limited.MN Jack, member of the Executive Council for Finance, Economic Development and Tourism in Northern Cape Province explained that the project’s wind generation is the equivalent of 215,800 tonnes of standard coal and emission reduction of 619,900 tonnes of carbon dioxide. The project makes a positive contribution to the local energy structure and the economic development, Jack said at a ceremony launching the operation on Friday.
The government, through the Kenya Pipeline Company (KPC), is currently undertaking a number of essential petroleum infrastructure projects to enhance the availability of fuel in Kenya and neighbouring countries. These include replacement of pipelines, enhancement of storage capacity and investment in loading facilities. Banking on sufficient and efficient infrastructure systems, Kenya is assured of adequate and reliable supply of petroleum products across the region. It is important to point out that increase in local and regional demand for petroleum products has in recent years not been matched by the development of requisite infrastructure to meet supply chain and market requirements. This is the strategic gap that the KPC seeks to bridge to fuel the national and regional economies. Regional demand for refined petroleum has increased to 13 per cent of Kenya’s total exports, making it the country’s third largest export product after tea and cut flowers. Last year alone, Kenya exported about two billion litres of refined petroleum to the five East African countries and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Uganda leads the pack having imported products worth over Sh1 billion last year.
Ethiopia is a country with untapped potential of energy resources. Presently, realizing its immense contribution for the overall economic development, the nation has now striving to generate electric power using all possible sources. Addis Ababa Waste to Energy Facility is a case in point. Though some tasks have been going on, 97 percent of the civil work of the project is currently completed, the UK based Cambridge Industries Human Resource Director Ermias Alemayehu told recently to The Ethiopian Herald. Indicating that the response to the request for transmission power is necessary to operate the facility, he said due to transmission problems, Testing and Commissioning (T&C) task has not yet started.According to him, T & C aims to lay down the minimum testing and commissioning requirements to be carried out on electrical installation. Mentioning that the project is delayed due to various reasons. He said efforts are underway to complete the job on time. "Currently, we are working in collaboration with the Ethiopian Electric Power to address the problem faced so far. Though some tasks are still going on, it is not performing with full gear."
Rwanda's energy rollout efforts received a boost yesterday following the operationalisation of $50 million to catalyse private sector's investment in off-grid energy solutions. The fund, managed by the World Bank and rolled out through Development Bank of Rwanda, is expected to facilitate the electrification of about 445,000 households in the next seven years. This, when achieved, will increase electricity access in the country by about 19 per cent. The current energy access rate stands at about 40 per cent. A section of the funds will also be used to avail credit facilities to mini-grids and developers in the sector. The intervention comes barely a month after local players in the renewable energy sector under their umbrella body, Energy Private Developers, had come out seeking financing to help meet national targets. The fund will allow a section of SACCOs, commercial and micro-finance institutions provide affordable loans to their clients to purchase certified solar systems. Dr Livingstone Byamungu, the chief investment officer at BRD, said the main objective of the fund is to increase affordability and reduce access to finance challenges.
Hoima — President Yoweri Museveni and Tanzania foreign minister Dr. Augustine Mahiga have laid a foundation stone at the start point of the 1,445km-long East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) in Hoima, Uganda. Saturday's function marked the climax of the visit by Tanzania's president John Magufuli, who inaugurated the Mutukula One Stop Border Post on Thursday and signed several agreements with his Ugandan counterpart on Friday and early Saturday. Mahiga represented Magufuli at the EACOP event in Hoima. In August, Museveni and Magufuli commissioned the construction of pipe line from Hoima district in Uganda by laying the first foundation stone at the Tanzanian port of Tanga. The heated crude oil pipe line, the longest of its kind in the world, will cost $3.5 billion and will be completed by 2020 making Uganda join the ranks of oil producing countries. The pipeline works will be undertaken by Total E&P, CNOOC and Tullow Oil together with the two governments of Uganda and Tanzania. The pipe line will on completion carry 216,000 barrels of crude oil for export daily.Tanzania's Dr. Mahiga hailed Uganda for the discovery of oil and investment in scientists to ensure the project succeeds.
eThala Management Services has secured $990,000 from the African Development Bank (AfDB) to implement a 10MW biomass power plant in Harding, KwaZulu Natal Province. The project's source of biomass is agricultural, forestry and timber processing waste, which coupled with the gasification technology, presents significant CO2 emission reduction benefits, the AfDB noted. The power plant is expected to deliver economic empowerment and boost the socio-economic development of the Harding community. The viability of this project is anticipated to have a significant demonstration effect with regards to bioenergy while showcasing corporate power purchase agreements as an anchor for renewable energy generation. "With the sponsor being a women-led business, the project is aligned with the Bank's Affirmative Finance Action for Women in Africa and can have a significant demonstration effect," said Ousseynou Nakoulima, AfDB's renewable energy and energy efficiency director. The funding has been approved under the bank’s multi-donor facility,
The government of Uganda has received a loan from the African Development Bank and grants from the European Union - Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund in various currencies towards the cost of the Uganda Rural Electricity Access Project. It is intended that part of the proceeds of this loan/financing will be applied to eligible payments under the contract for design, supply, and installation of medium voltage networks and last mile consumer connections. Lot-1: Central service territory (Nakasongola, Kiryandongo and Environs) Lot-3: Central North, Eastern and North-Eastern service territories (Alebtong, Amuria, Soroti, Mbal, eManafwa, Serere, Ngora, Bukedea and environs)Lot-7: North North-West Service Territory (Gulu, Nwoya, Lira and environs) using concrete poles.The Rural Electrification Agency (REA) now invites sealed bids from eligible bidders for the construction and completion of: design, supply, and installation of medium voltage networks and last mile consumer connections (Lot-1, Lot-3 & Lot-7). International competitive bidding will be conducted in accordance with the Bank's Rules and Procedures for Procurement of Goods and Works, and specifically, through Single Stage Bidding Procedures. Interested eligible bidders may obtain further information from and inspect the bidding documents at the following address from 08:00 to 17:00 hours local time.
More than 100 pumped storage hydropower projects totaling some 75 GW of new capacity are in the pipeline around the world, according to a new online tracking tool. The new Hydropower Pumped Storage Tracking Tool – developed by the International Hydropower Association (IHA) – maps the locations and vital statistics of existing and planned projects. The interactive tool was launched by the IHA at the COP23 climate conference in Bonn, Germany this week.According to the tracking tool, the 100 planned projects will increase existing global storage capacity by 50%, from 150 GW to almost 225 GW, the IHA said in a statement. The first of these projects will come on line in 2018, and the majority will be operational by 2030.The IHA explains that pumped storage hydropower, otherwise known as the world’s ‘water batteries’, is the cleanest and most cost-effective form of energy storage existing today. Adding that it makes up more than 95% of global energy storage, next to less than 5% combined for thermal, electromechanical and electrochemical storage, including lithium batteries. Richard Taylor, chief executive of the IHA, said: “Pumped storage is the cleanest battery on earth, simply cycling water between two water bodies at different elevations.
The idea of using private capital to bridge the power capacity gap has yielded positive results, thanks to financial guarantees, writes World Bank energy specialists. Achieving development impact through increased access to electricity requires countries to mobilise private investments. Since 1994 Africa has attracted over $25 billion through independent power projects (IPPs), installing 11GW of generation capacity. A similar approach using financial guarantees could be used to bridge the financing gap in the transmission network. Estimates of annual investments required for transmission network expansion from 2015 to 2040 range between $3.2 and $4.3 billion. These investments are critical to delivering cost-effective power to households and industries. They are also critical to the development of Africa’s vast power-generation potential. To date, private sector business models have had limited success in expanding transmission networks. The IPT (independent power transmission) model, which can assist in bringing additional private investment to Africa, has worked well in several countries in Latin America and is comparable, in many ways, to the IPP approach with similar project financing structures.
In Nigeria, Sokoto State government declared that it has started the process of connecting a number of rural households to solar power in order to deepen energy usage and enhance rural electrification in the region. According to the Vaunguard, Alhaji Bashir Gidado, the special adviser to Governor Aminu Tambuwal on Public Private Partnership (PPP), made the disclosure at a news conference in Sokoto this past weekend. Gidado said the project was a partnership between the state government and Nigeria Energy Support Project (NESP), GIZ of Germany and GoSolar.Gidado added that a pilot scheme has already started in Kurdula, a rural settlement in Balle town of Gudu local government area of the state. He noted: "This is an off grid mini solar project and the idea is to provide solar power to rural communities that are not covered by the national grid using solar energy which we have in abundance in Sokoto State.”
Newly established Trafo Power Solutions has been selected to supply the Vereeniging-based Rand Water Zuikerbosch Water Treatment Works with thirteen custom designed dry-type transformers.According to David Claassen, managing director of Trafo Power Solutions, the rationale for a project to go the route of using cast resin or dry-type transformers is for a number of reasons. “Prime among these is the inherent safety offered by these units as well as ease of installation given the fact that they are installed inside built substations as opposed to outdoors with associated special bunding and civils. ”He adds that dry-type transformers are categorised as F1 in terms of international fire resistance ratings, making them low risk as they are self-extinguishing and flame-retardant by nature. “With zero risk of fire, the high safety rating of dry-type transformers allows them to be installed indoors, avoiding the cost and inconvenience of the special structures normally required to accommodate the safety and environmental hazards related to oil-filled units.”
A solar facility made up of 720 solar PV modules and coupled with a 315 Kwh storage system is expected to power several communities of the Bongolava region.The population of Belobaka, a locality situated 291 km from Antananarivo, in the Bongolava region of Madagascar has finally gained access to electricity. The president of Madagascar Hery Rajaonarimampianina inaugurated a solar-plus-storage power facility on the 27th of October. The project was financed by the US Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) in the frame of the $63 million program “Power Africa” which aims to enlarge access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa. The PV plant in Belobaka is one of 100 units set to be installed throughout Madagascar. The plant has 720 PV modules and the batteries in place have a 315 Kwh storage capacity, which can supply electricity for 3 days without running out. According to the U.S. ambassador Robert Yamate, this investment is a new step towards cooperation between the two states, with this project showing how the adoption and implementation of these new innovating technologies can help electrify rural Madagascar.
Hwange Colliery Company Limited, which is expected to reach 400,000 tonnes monthly production by December, is now pushing for an increase in export sales to earn the much needed foreign exchange for the company to expand its operations. Building on the success of Project Gijima, the mining company is planning to replicate the scheme by launching Project Gijima 2 to boost its export sales through selling of underground coal and coking coal to other countries. According to the Herald Business, the colliery is in an arrangement with both local and international banks to raise around $400 million for the company's total operations. However, in addition to that Hwange intends to produce abundant coal and coking coal to earn forex. The company’s managing director, engineer Thomas Makore, recently told the Herald Business that the resumption of underground mining at Project Gijima 2 will finance some of their projects to retool its operations with modern and more efficient equipment and technologies, through selling of some of its produce to South Africa and other nations. He said Gijima 1's main focus on its 100 Day Rapid Results project, was mainly production and productivity improvement but Gijima 2's focus will be exports among other things.
Africa50, an infrastructure fund for Africa, Scatec Solar and Norfund signed a long-term financing documentation on 27 October for the 400MWDC utility scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants in Egypt. The parties had previously entered into a Joint Development Agreement (JDA). Africa50 chairman and AfDB president, Akinwumi Adesina, said: “This is an important milestone for Africa50. The project is the fund’s first early stage investment through its Project Development arm to be converted into a long-term equity investment made by its Project Financing arm.” The plants are supported by 25-year power purchase agreements with the state-owned Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company (EETC), backstopped by a sovereign guarantee. Access roads and interconnection facilities (substations and a 12km high voltage line) have already been funded collectively by the Benban project developers under a cost sharing agreement with EETC and the New and Renewable Energy Agency.With a 25% stake, Africa50 is contributing equity to fund construction alongside Scatec Solar and Norfund, leveraging total funding of around $450 million. Senior debt will be provided by EBRD, FMO, the Green Climate Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, and the Islamic Corporation for the Development of the Private Sector.
Rwanda: Solar-Powered Borehole Technology Helps Double Yields
Kenya is shipping samples of natural gas recently discovered in rural Kajiado to the US for laboratory tests, Energy ministry officials said. State-owned National Oil, which owns the exploration bloc where the gas was found, said the decision was made after preliminary surveys established that the area has gas deposits. National Oil said it had contracted American oil and gas logistics giant Weatherford to analyse the samples, and if confirmed, pave the way for drilling of wells. The State firm last week said it had completed seismic tests in the area – a process that involves picking surface vibrations to reveal the rock formations holding oil or gas. “We did the seismic or geological x-ray last week and generated data that is being taken to foreign labs for analysis and interpretation,” Petroleum principal secretary Andrew Kamau said. The US tests are expected to establish the nature of the gas, quantity available and a possible presence of oil in the area. East Africa does not have a laboratory facility for such tests, prompting Kenya to seek the services from the US. Workers sinking a borehole discovered the inflammable gas after they struck a fissure with hissing sound and confirmed its burning property by lighting a match stick.
Known for holding Africa’s third largest hydropower potential (after the DRC and Ethiopia), Cameroon bares itself as a potential solar attraction as well. Cameroon is currently harnessing only 721MW of its estimated 12,000MW hydropower capacity. This alone is a thunderous snippet of information; however, with its average solar radiation ranging from 4.5kWh/sqm/day in the south to 5.74kWh/sqm/day in the north, the focus should not be entirely on hydro resources, writes Nicolette Pombo-van Zyl, editor of ESI Africa. Harnessing various technologies is essential to develop a sustainable and efficient energy mix while supporting economic growth and development for Cameroon. It is reasonable to say that the region’s stakeholders have reached the point of agreeing on what the generation potential is and what the technology mix can comprise. The question now is how this can be realistically achieved – the specific legislation and actions that will lay the foundation for financial commitments and development of bankable power projects.Exploring a few headlines in 2017 that sparked interest in this central African country, the topmost feature bears witness to progress with the official launch of construction works for the 30MW LomPangar Hydroelectric Dam project. At the launch ceremony, the President of the African Development Bank (AfDB), Akinwumi Adesina, expressed delight about this prominent project, highlighting that it will supply electricity to the entire eastern region of Cameroon.
The International Islamic Trade Finance Corporation (ITFC), a member of the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) Group, had signed an agreement with The Gambia worth $45 million in support of the West African country's energy sector. The agreement was concluded over the past weekend at the IDB Group Governors’ lunch, a side-line event at the World Bank/IMF meeting held in Washington DC, in the US. Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs of The Gambia, Amadou Sanneh and Eng. Hani Salem Sonbol, chief executive officer of ITFC, signed the treaty. Also present was Dr Bandar Hajjar, IDB Group President. According to a statement, the main purpose of the pact is for the financing of the imports of energy and petroleum products. “ITFC will excel efforts to mobilise financial resources from banks, and financial institutions to finance these imports,” read the statement. Commenting on the agreement, Sonbol said, “As a leading Islamic Trade Finance Solutions Provider, this agreement is a milestone to boost the main sector of The Gambian economy “Energy is critical for supplying the country with fuel and electricity, in addition to development, this signing contributes to intra OIC trade as the products to be financed would be sourced mainly from OIC member countries.”
Global independent power producer (IPP) Building Energy has unveiled the Tororo Solar Plant, located in eastern Uganda. According to the IPP, the Tororo 10MWp plant, with 16GWh of renewable energy generated annually, will cater for the energy requirements of 35,838 people and help reduce CO2 emissions by 7,200 tons. The renewable energy company claims that this solar power plant is among the largest in eastern Africa. Building Energy was also responsible for the development of the project, arranging the financing, as well as the construction and commissioning of the plant. The beginning of operations were celebrated on the occasion of the ribbon cutting ceremony in Tororo, in the presence of Matteo Brambilla, MD Africa and Middle East for Building Energy, and Attilio Pacifici, EU Ambassador and Head of the EU Delegation to Uganda.The solar park is being developed under the Global Energy Transfer Feed in Tariff (GET FiT), a dedicated support scheme for renewable energy projects managed by Germany's KfW Development Bank in partnership with Uganda's Electricity Regulatory Agency (ERA) and funded by the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund, the governments of Norway, Germany, and the United Kingdom.
Poor homes will now acquire 6kg gas cylinders with cooking accessories at a discounted price of Sh2,000, down from about Sh5,000, under a government subsidy plan aimed at cutting reliance on kerosene and charcoal. The cylinders, dubbed Gas Yetu, will be distributed to the poor across the country by State-owned National Oil. Under the plan, which has been piloted in Machakos and Kajiado counties, the Ministry of Energy will buy about one million new cylinders for distribution."This campaign is meant to increase the uptake of cooking gas by low-income households," National Oil CEO MaryJane Mwangi said. The company sells a complete 6kg cylinder of its flagship SupaGas brand at about Sh5,000. The equivalent cylinder of the new Gas Yetu brand at Sh2,000 is set to be a game changer in weaning poor homes from the use of firewood, charcoal and kerosene for cooking. The Treasury initially allocated the Energy ministry Sh2.2 billion for the programme and later added it Sh700 million in a mini-budget, pushing the total to Sh3.1 billion. The Treasury in July last year scrapped value added tax (VAT) on cooking gas to cut costs and boost uptake, but poor homes have continued to find the prices prohibitive.
For More Information Click Here
Among its already diverse energy mix consisting of hydropower, geothermal and renewables; Kenya now intends to add natural gas to the mix. Midway Resources International’s subsidiary Zarara Oil & Gas Ltd, has recently announced that it will soon start drilling two wells of natural gas after Kenya's National Environment Management Authority (Nema) approved environmental licences for well sinking on Pate Island off the coast in Lamu. The East African reported that the energy ministry has set strict deadlines for the company to begin drilling Pate 2 by the end of the year and later Pate 3.The deadlines set are in line with the government wanting to reduce the country's dependence on expensive hydro and thermal power.According to the East African, the licence granted to Zarara Oil & Gas will run until July 2019. Geoffrey Wahungu, director general at Nema, said Zarara is required to undertake exploratory drilling at an estimated cost of $159 million.
A Danish energy company is working on new machines that sort household trash from recycling, while rapidly breaking down organic materials like food to create power from biogas produced by the process. Dong Energy A/S, which runs hundreds of wind turbines in the North Sea, says its plant 30 kilometers (19 miles) outside of Manchester is one of the first to use enzymes on an entire waste stream and then combine it with recycling sorting technology. That would be particularly helpful in cities where space is at a premium and small apartments often have room for only one trash bin.The process “is a useful option for local authorities and waste companies that have not yet rolled out separate food waste collections,” said Charlotte Morton, chief executive of the Anaerobic Digestion & Bioresources Association.
A joint World Bank-IFC programme and innovation, Lighting Africa, has announced the launch of a two-year consumer education campaign in Tanzania to promote solar off-grid lighting and energy products in off-grid communities. The global financier underlined in a statement that solar energy and lighting products are seeing increased demand in the east African country, where most rural households depend on low quality solar lanterns and other electric products for lighting. The statement further noted that due to common early breakage, the low quality products have caused consumers to not only lose money, but has also lowered their confidence in the validity of solar products.The campaign, titled ‘Ngaa na Sola - Ndo Mpango Mzima,” (shine with solar, it is the complete deal), is aimed at raising consumer awareness about the benefits of modern, quality solar off-grid lighting, helping communities make informed purchasing decisions.
In West Africa, there are currently 150 million people without access to power, which Senegalese solar startup, Oolu, is striving to change.The startup has recently secured a $3.2 million Series A funding round to deploy in-home solar kits for a minimal monthly fee. Disrupt Africa reported: “The funding round was led by Persistent Energy Capital (PEC), and was joined by Y Combinator (YC) and other seed investors. “Oolu will use the money to further invest in its current operations in Senegal and Mali, and expand into a third market in 2018.”Disrupt Africa reported that the solar kits include three adjustable lights and two USB plugs, powered by a battery that holds a charge for up to six hours with maximum output.Media explained: “For a low monthly fee, paid through mobile money, the Y Combinator-incubated Oolu installs the system and performs any necessary maintenance, including free battery replacements and system upgrades.”
This website is best displayed in Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera browsers
AFREPREN/FWD © 2017